Training literature

Training literature

There are plenty of scholarly works surrounding clinician-investigator trainees and training programs. We have provided a non-exhaustive list of work pertinent to clinician-investigator training, both within Canada and beyond. 

Articles are listed in reverse chronological order. * indicates articles that are published by CITAC members, also viewable on our Research page


Suggestion for a reference to include in this bibliography? Please let us know at


Challenges and advice for MD/PhD applicants who are underrepresented in medicine.

Bannerman, C., Guzman, N., Kumar, R., Nnebe, C., Setayesh, J., Venapally, A., & Sussman, J. H. (2020). Molecular Biology of the Cell, 31(24), 2640–2643.

*Ng, E. et al. The Integration of Clinical and Research Training: How and Why MD–PhD Programs Work. Academic Medicine 94, 664–670 (2019). https://doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000002467

Saving the Endangered Physician-Scientist — A Plan for Accelerating Medical Breakthroughs.

Jain, M. K., Cheung, V. G., Utz, P. J., Kobilka, B. K., Yamada, T., & Lefkowitz, R. (2019). New England Journal of Medicine, 381(5), 399–402.

Critical Gaps in Understanding the Clinician–Scientist Workforce.

Weggemans, M. M., Friesen, F., Kluijtmans, M., Prakken, B., ten Cate, O., Woods, N. N., & Rosenblum, N. D. (2019). Academic Medicine, 94(10), 1448–1454.

Editorial: The vulnerable physician-scientist.

Mirmira, R. G. (2014). Molecular Endocrinology, 28(5), 603–606.

Preparing MD-PhD students for clinical rotations: navigating the interface Between PhD and MD training.

Goldberg, C., & Insel, P. A. (2013). Academic Medicine, 88(6), 745–747.

The vanishing physician-scientist?

Schafer, A. I. (2010). Translational Research, 155(1), 1–2.

The need to restructure MD-PhD training.

Whitcomb, M. E. (2007). Academic Medicine, 82(7), 623–624.

The clinical investigator: bewitched, bothered, and bewildered–but still beloved.

Goldstein, J. L., & Brown, M. S. (1997). Journal of Clinical Investigation, 99(12), 2803–2812.

The clinical investigator as an endangered species.

Wyngaarden, J. B. (1979). New England Journal of Medicine, 301(23), 1254–1259.

Canadian Trainee and Program Data (collapsable/expandable list)

*International training considerations of Canadian clinician-scientist trainees – a national survey.

Pietrobon, A., Cook, E. K., Yin, C., Chan, D. C. H., & Marvasti, T. B. (2020). Clinical and Investigative Medicine, 43(4), E2-7.

*Piloting a long distance clinician scientist trainee mentorship match in Canada.

Mirali, S., Fan, K., Cook, E. K., & Marvasti, T. B. (2020). Clinical and Investigative Medicine, 43(1), E5–E8.

*Performance report for a 10-year-old MD/PhD program: a survey of trainees at the University of Ottawa.

Pietrobon, A., Chehadé, L., Beaudry-Richard, A., Keller, B. A., & Schlossmacher, M. G. (2020). Clinical and Investigative Medicine, 43(2), E1-13.

Skinnider, M. A., Twa, D. D. W., Squair, J. W., Rosenblum, N. D. & Lukac, C. D. Predictors of sustained research involvement among MD/PhD programme graduates. Medical Education 52, 536–545 (2018).

The rising challenge of training physician–scientists: recommendations from a Canadian national consensus conference.

Strong, M. J., Busing, N., Goosney, D. L., Harris, K. A., Horsley, T., Kuzyk, A., Lingard, L., Norman, W. V., Rosenblum, N. D., Saryeddine, T., & Wang, X. (2018). Academic Medicine, 93(2), 172–178.

Twa, D.D.W., Skinnider, M.A., Squair, J.W., Lukac, C.D. Cross-sectional-derived determinants of satisfaction with physician-scientist training among Canadian MD/PhD graduates. PLoS ONE, 12, e0185218 (2017).

* Training the next generation of Canadian clinician-scientists: charting a path to success.

Yin, C., Steadman, P. E., Apramian, T., Zhou, T. E., Ishaque, A., Wang, X., Kuzyk, A., & Warsi, N. (2017). Clinical & Investigative Medicine, 40(2), 95.

Characteristics and outcomes of Canadian MD/PhD program graduates: a cross-sectional survey.

Skinnider, M. A., Squair, J. W., Twa, D. D. W., Ji, J. X., Kuzyk, A., Wang, X., Steadman, P. E., Zaslavsky, K., Dey, A. K., Eisenberg, M. J., Gagné, È.-R., HayGlass, K. T., Lewis, J. F., Margetts, P. J., Underhill, D. A., Rosenblum, N. D., & Raymond, L. A. (2017). CMAJ Open, 5(2), E308–E314.

Career and research outcomes of the physician-scientist training program at the University of Calgary: a retrospective cohort study.

Bau, J. T., Frolkis, A. D., Nathoo, N., Yipp, B. G., Hollenberg, M. D., & Beck, P. L. (2017). CMAJ Open, 5(2), E395–E401.

‌Canadian M.D.-Ph.D. programs produce impactful physician-scientists: the McGill experience.

Zhou, T. E., Savage, P. A., & Eisenberg, M. J. (2016). Journal of Biomedical Education, 2016, 1–4.

Clinician scientists in Canada: supporting innovations in patient care through research.

Lockyer, J.M., Brzezina, S., Thake, J., et al. (2016). Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Link

* MD/PhD training in Canada: results from a national trainee and program director review.

Jones, A. A., Ng, E., Deguise, M.-O., Mak, L., Ouyang, B., Sivapragasam, M., MacNairn, I. A. S., Nath, S., Benesch, M. G. K., Forrest, L., & Wang, X. (2016). Clinical & Investigative Medicine, 39(4), 132.

Lost: Young Canadian physician-scientists need a map.

Lewinson, R. T., Keough, M. B., Beck, P. L., Hollenberg, M. D., & Yipp, B. G. (2016). Science Translational Medicine, 8(329), 329fs6–329fs6.

CIHR cutting MD/PhD training program.

Webster, P. C. (2015). Canadian Medical Association Journal, 187(12), E381–E382.

The Canadian MD/PhD training program needs reinstated support.

Lewinson, R. T., Beers, C. A., Capozzi, L. C., Iablokov, V., Keough, M. B., & Peplowski, M. A. (2015). Nature Medicine, 21(10), 1111–1111.

The Canadian clinician-scientist training program must be reinstated.

Twa, D. D. W., Squair, J. W., Skinnider, M. A., & Ji, J. X. (2015). Journal of Clinical Investigation, 125(12), 4317–4319.

Challenges facing physician scientist trainees: a survey of trainees in Canada’s largest undergraduate and postgraduate programs in a single centre.

Ballios, B. G., & Rosenblum, N. D. (2014). Clinical & Investigative Medicine, 37(5), 268.

* It begins with the right supervisor: Importance of mentorship and clinician-investigator trainee satisfaction levels in Canada.

Yoon, J.-Y., Appleton, T., Cecchini, M. J., Correa, R. J., Ram, V. D., Wang, X., Ng, E., Speechley, M., & Wilcox, J. T. (2013). Clinical & Investigative Medicine, 36(6), 269.

Canadian Clinician Investigator Training in the 21st Century.

Appleton, C. T., Belrose, J., Ward, M. R., & Young, F. B. (2013). Clinical & Investigative Medicine, 36(4), 163.

Clinician-Scientists in Canada: barriers to career entry and progress.

Lander, B., Hanley, G. E., & Atkinson-Grosjean, J. (2010). PLoS ONE, 5(10), e13168.

U.S. Trainee and Program Data (collapsable/expandable list)

Breaking tradition to bridge bench and bedside: accelerating the MD-PhD-Residency pathway.

Modrek, A. S., Tanese, N., Placantonakis, D. G., Sulman, E. P., Rivera, R., Du, K. L., Gerber, N. K., David, G., Chesler, M., Philips, M. R., & Cangiarella, J. (2021). Academic Medicine.

MD-PhD program graduates’ engagement in research.

Andriole, D. A., Grbic, D., Yellin, J., & McKinney, R. (2020). Academic Medicine, Publish Ahead of Print.

A nationwide assessment of perceptions of research-intense academic careers among predoctoral MD and MD-PhD trainees.

Kwan, J. M., Toubat, O., Harrison, A. M., Riddle, M., Wu, B., Kim, H., Basta, D. W., Adami, A. J., & Daye, D. (2020). Journal of Clinical and Translational Science, 4(4), 307–316.

A comparison of match outcomes between traditional medical degree and dual-degree applicants.

Christensen, B. R., Becnel, C. M., Chan, L. P., Minetos, P. D., Clarke, J. F., & Kahn, M. J. (2020). PLOS ONE, 15(12), e0244147.

‌The national MD-PhD program outcomes study: relationships between medical specialty, training duration, research effort, and career paths.

Brass, L. F., & Akabas, M. H. (2019). JCI Insight, 4(19).

National MD-PhD program outcomes study.

American Association of Medical Colleges (2018). AAMC. Link

History and outcomes of 50 years of physician–scientist training in medical scientist training programs.

Harding, C. V., Akabas, M. H., & Andersen, O. S. (2017). Academic Medicine, 92(10), 1390–1398.

The first nationwide survey of MD-PhDs in the social sciences and humanities: training patterns and career choices.

Holmes, S. M., Karlin, J., Stonington, S. D., & Gottheil, D. L. (2017). BMC Medical Education, 17(1).

Predictors of full-time faculty appointment among MD–PhD program graduates: a national cohort study.

Andriole, D. A., & Jeffe, D. B. (2016). Medical Education Online, 21(1), 30941.

Educational Outcomes for Students Enrolled in MD–PhD Programs at Medical School Matriculation, 1995–2000.

Jeffe, D. B., Andriole, D. A., Wathington, H. D., & Tai, R. H. (2014). Academic Medicine, 89(1), 84–93.

A national cohort study of MD-PhD graduates of medical schools with and without funding from the National Institute Of General Medical Sciencesʼ Medical Scientist Training Program.

Jeffe, D. B., & Andriole, D. A. (2011). Academic Medicine, 86(8), 953–961.

Are MD–PhD programs meeting their goals? An analysis of career choices made by graduates of 24 MD-PhD programs.

Brass, L. F., Akabas, M. H., Burnley, L. D., Engman, D. M., Wiley, C. A., & Andersen, O. S. (2010). Academic Medicine, 1.

Characteristics and career intentions of the emerging MD/PhD workforce.

Andriole, D. A. (2008). JAMA, 300(10), 1165.